It’s about improving people’s prospects. The captured waveform was analyzed with the oscilloscope. Figures 3 (b), (c), (d), and (e) showed the various types of field connections. Since 2010, SainSmart is an industry leader of opensource hardware, ranging from 3D Printer, 3D Printing Filament, CNC Router, Raspberry Pi & Arduino Projects. The graphs are to be plotted for constant field current. (2) Separately-excited field Separately-excited generators are those whose field magnets are energized from an independent external source of DC current. Among the three types of DC motors, such as series, shunt and separately excited DC motors. Ladies and gents, I've been stashing away info on grey motor maggies for a while. - The field winding is supplied by a separate DC source whose voltage is variable. A typical Magnetization Characteristics is shown in Fig. Remark: A separately excited generator has disadvantage of requiring an external DC source. Characteristics Of D. can come from a separate DC source external to the generator (e. DC motors are use for lots of applications in the field of electrical engineering industry and modern day to day applications. and more precise response to the changes in the resistance of the field circuit is obtained by separate excitation. Here in this example, two 10 volt voltage source are combined to produce 10 volts between terminals A and B. Control of a dc motor, especially of the separately excited type, is very straightforward, mainly because of the incorporation of the commutator within the motor. Torque-Speed Characteristics And Speed Control Of Separately Excited DC Motor. Types of DC motors / direct current a. Fossil Fuels: I’m Not Dead Yet and we’ll happily engage our own internal BS generator to spew out excuses for why we cannot possibly do X, or Y, or Z — or. txt) or view presentation slides online. DC motors are used in most control systems • Permanent magnet DC motors: It has constant value of flux density. The Separately Excited DC Generator simply means that the field winding is get excited by another independent power source. A force is exerted on the coil as a result of the interaction of magnetic field and electric current. DC generators are either separately excited or self-excited. Cross section sets normalized by the swarm technique need to be developed for a larger set of (complex) reactive molecules with input from binary collision experiments and theory. If the armature circuit resistance is 0. generator is set as follows. Because of this property they are used as supply source of DC motors, whose speeds are to be controlled for various applications. 32-Bit-Digital Signal Controller Build Level based code examples. In case of motor, armature current flows into Ea. LSU Football is back and TigerDroppings has the info you need. Open circuit separately excited DC. Between the 4 types of DC motors, the potential applications are numerous. 1 MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A DC POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN 21ST CENTURY AIRLIFTERS by Konstantin P. the torque of this motor depends upon the field flux and we discover that from the torque equation of Dc motor Tg =Ka Q Ia. The major advantages of dc machines over generators are easy to control speed and torque regulation. Here in this example, two 10 volt voltage source are combined to produce 10 volts between terminals A and B. In here we are plan to discuss four characteristic of this special type generator such as. the equivalent resistance of the motor acting as a generator. If the motor has a shunt field, the field and armature voltages would be equal. • This current can be supplied either from an external battery (separately excited), or by the generated voltage from the armature winding itself (self excited). generators used in different wind turbine simulators. 3/23/2007 ELEC A6 DC Machine 30 Separately Excited DC Motors - The armature winding supplies the load. There are two main groups of DC motors: commutator (brushed) and commutatorless (brushless). DC motor is still the most common choice if wide range of adjustable speed drive operation is specified. In determining this characteristic the machine must be separately excited as a generator and run at rated speed by external means (prime-mover) as shown in Fig. A Shunt Generator Circuit Diagram Is Shown Below. Torque Generation A reactance torque of PMSM is. For comparison, a self-excited dc generator is a dc generator. This is provided by an independent source (other dynamo operation, storage battery) ; There is then a dynamo called separately excited, But more generally, the machine itself provides his excitement using capacitors, it is said to be self-excitation Synchronous AC generator. 2 Ω and 220 Ω respectively. The field is wound with a few turns of large wire because it must carry the full armature current. If the DC servomotor is either a brushless or moving-coil motor, the standalone tachometer will typically be brushless and, although they are housed separately, a common armature shaft will be shared. Password requirements: 6 to 30 characters long; ASCII characters only (characters found on a standard US keyboard); must contain at least 4 different symbols;. In DC machines a separately excited generator could be run as a shunt generator provided the field winding is designed to work on the generated voltage. 2 To charge battery because they can be made to give constant output voltage. This huge collection of artistic design resources focuses entirely on quality and usefulness. 4 RC Step Response. Figures 3 (b), (c), (d), and (e) showed the various types of field connections. This DC voltage can be supplied to the alternator separately or may be produced from the AC current produced by it thorough conversion. but inverter is startwith 12v,24,dc to 36v dc and 120amp to 180amp battery with. As examples, trolleys and underground subway cars may use dc. 3dcart has a range of pricing options which allow the platform to work for many different businesses types and sizes. Another alternative is to supply constant voltage to the armature and control the speed by controlling the field current. Example: Any household appliance that includes a motor like a mixer grinder, trimmers, and submersible motors. Positive Feedback ISSUE 75 september/october 2014. Dc Motors, Generators and Energy Conversion Devices. The greater the speed and field current, greater is the generated e. Use of series motor is generally limited to case where a heavy power demand is necessary to bring the machine up to speed, as in the case of certain elevator and hoist installations, for steelcars, etc. At rated field current and rated rotor speed, its open-circuit voltage is 200 V. The speed of the separately-excited dc machine of Example 7. Examples being the Direct-on-Line starting of an excessively large electric motor, or associated with a distribution system fault involving the shorting together of all three phases. The disadvantage are: 1. Torque Equation of DC Motor dc motor Referring to the diagram beside, we can see, that if E is the supply voltage, Eb is the back emf produced and Ia, Ra are the armature. Introduction A Simple AC Generator A Simple DC Generator DC Generators or Dynamos AC Generators or Alternators DC Motors AC Motors Universal Motors Electrical Machines – A Summary. 527V/A rad/s. For "separately excited" systems, the main synchronous field circuit is fed by DC which is passed to the winding through a mechanical (brush-and-collector) interface. Vary the resistance value of variable resistor until the galvanometer shows null (zero) deflection. This is a device which converts mechanical energy into direct work by its working. DC motors separate power source / Separately Excited, If the field current supplied from a separate source of DC motors it is called a separate power source / separately excited. We are currently operating out of a 7000+sq foot warehouse in Winston-Salem NC. The operation considered here assumes that the armature is driven at constant speed (by means of prime mover) and the field excitation (//) is adjusted to give rated voltage at no-load and is then held constant at this value throughout the operation. Answer / san. Club Car has employed a fairly standard serial number location and format since around 1981. The Shunt DC Generator Separately Excited- Shunt field winding is excited from a separate DC source. Calculate the generated e. In 2161, their homeworld became a founding member of the United Federation of Planets. generator is that we require an external d. Torque-Speed Characteristics Of Series DC Motor. Shunt DC Motor Torque-Speed Characteristic No armature reaction With armature reaction For Problems 9-8 and 9-9, the shunt dc motor is reconnected separately excited, as shown in Figure P9-3. Generators equipped with permanent magnets are among the most well-known separately excited methods. It is therefore used only where a wide range of terminal voltage required. The field winding is supplied from a DC source of Vf = 100V. We all know that on the basis of excitation system, Alternators mainly are of two types-(1)Separately Excited system,(2) Self Excited system. DC generators are mainly two types which are Separately excited DC generator and Self-excited DC generator. Generators—Separately-excited erator—-No-load Curve for Self-excited Generator—Hvw to find Critical Resistance R? to draw O. as shunt excited. The most popular of the separately excited motor is:. This source may be another dc generator, a controlled rectifier, or a diode rectifier, or a battery. The shunt field is of larger number of turns and of higher resistance than the series field. Figure 5 - Configuration of DC Machines. electrical-engineering-assignment. If external mechanical power is applied to a DC motor it acts as a DC generator, a dynamo. The torque-speed relationship, valid for both shunt and separate excitation, is derived. generators are normally of self-excited type. Separately excited DC generator. The DC Machine block implements a wound-field or permanent magnet DC machine. Brief description of series, shunt and compound generators. generators are rarely used in practice. The armature resistance is Ra = 0. In case of separately excited d. the torque of this motor depends upon the field flux and we discover that from the torque equation of Dc motor Tg =Ka Q Ia. So on this basis there are two types of DC generators:-1. Derive from first principles an expression for emf in dc generator. 19 1 Torque and speed of rotation The torque generated by the motor, and its speed of rotation, are. Direct-current generators were widely used prior to the availability of economical rectifier systems supplied by alternators. This makes two broad categories of dc machines; (i) Separately excited and (ii) Self-excited. and more precise response to the changes in the resistance of the field circuit is obtained by separate excitation. The magnetization curve produced when the machine is separately excited still applies in the case of self-excited DC generator. Types And Applications Of Compound DC Motors. The below figure shows four quadrant operation of a separately excited DC motor in which a dot symbol on one of motor terminals indicates the sign of the torque. Generators are those whose field magnets are energized by the currents produced by the generators themselves. C generators may be classified as (i) separately excited generator, (ii) shunt generator, and (iii) series generator and (iv) compound generator. The above DC bridge circuit can be excited with a DC voltage source by placing it in one diagonal. Let’s start with some basic FOC principles. A separately-excited DC generator with bipolar field magnets. Applications of Separately Excited DC Generators. generator produces d. The field weakening of a PM machine has to be implemented by using a demagnetizing stator current. ) cathode insert operating at 13 A of discharge current and a xenon flow of 3. where σ<0 determines the decay rate. Now we will draw the external characteristics of a separately excited DC generators. These generators are called self-excited generators. A separately excited DC machine is used, in this case, with the control of the field terminals and the armature circuit connected to converters. The generator is rated at 6 kW, 120 V, 50 A, and 1800 r/min and is shown in Figure P9-8. 1 $$\Omega$$ and negligible armature inductance. The separately excited DC motor can be controlled from. Between the 4 types of DC motors, the potential applications are numerous. If this generated voltage itself is used to excite the field winding of the same d. is totally dependent on flux Φ i. Shop TCL 65" Class LED 6 Series 2160p Smart 4K UHD TV with HDR Roku TV at Best Buy. In fact, 90% of industrial motors are induction motors. Internal or Total Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Generator. Typically generators are driven by a constant speed driver and the number of conductors on an armature is fixed. Question: How Is The Induced Voltage Of A Separately Excited DC Generator Is Affected If (a) The Speed N Increases: (b) The Excitation (field) Current Is Reduced. Electric motors are a common means of powering a train, whether the energy required is carried on-board the train in the form of a diesel engine and its fuel or obtained from outside the train by connection with an external power supply carried by an overhead line or third rail. In DC machines a separately excited generator could be run as a shunt generator provided the field winding is designed to work on the generated voltage. If the motor has a shunt field, the field and armature voltages would be equal. Whereas in self excited type field is excited with permanent magnets. (2) Separately-excited field Separately-excited generators are those whose field magnets are energized from an independent external source of DC current. This approach is particularly common in electrical power distribution calculations. 1) permanent-magnet field. A compound-wound motor has both a series and a shunt field winding, (i. Shunt DC Motor Torque-Speed Characteristic No armature reaction With armature reaction For Problems 9-8 and 9-9, the shunt dc motor is reconnected separately excited, as shown in Figure P9-3. We are currently operating out of a 7000+sq foot warehouse in Winston-Salem NC. Commutator motors include separately excited, shunt excited, series. DC machine can be used as a motor or as a generator. generators field regulator is necessary. at Different Speeds Speed—Voltagc Build up 01 a Shunt erator—Condition for Build-up Of a Shunt Generator—Other factors Affecting Voltage Building 01 a D. • The major advantages of dc machines are the easy speed and torque regulation. However, like other technologies, they have to continuously evolve to meet new problems and market requirements. If you've got lessons plans, videos, activities, or other ideas you'd like to contribute, we'd love to hear from you. Lieutenant Sandberg and Sergeant Hallgren were selected from among forty members of the newly established force (PWB) to become a two-man team to saturate the Philippine Islands with propaganda. This chapter describes the clinical implications of abnormal muscle mass, tone, and weakness. Discover why more than 10 million students and educators use Course Hero. Series motors are almost always marked A1,A2 and S1, S2 S stands for stater and that is the stationary windings of the motor. The data for O. Self-excited DC generator. In a separately excited DC generator, the field winding is excited by an external independent source. In a self-excited generator, the field winding is connected directly to the generator output. 7″, and 8″ diameters. Highlight their pros and cons. Types of DC motors / direct current a. A New Era of Engineering Excellence In this issue of Parameters, we explore UH Engineering's expansion to UH at Katy and how it serves as a model partnership between academia and industry. You will need to find a physics teacher or student to help you design your coil and DC power supply. The armature resistance is 2 and the machine delivers a current of 12 A. In case of separately excited d. 52 to 838 mm 3, and penetration times for 12. In a self-excited generator, the field winding is connected directly to the generator output. Simplified equivalent circuit of a DC generator. This source can be a battery, a diode rectifier, another DC Generator or a controlled rectifier. The characteristics of this generator are given as [3]: =I I L A (9) = − V E I R T A A A (10) F F F R V I = (11) Experimentally different load characteristics of a Separately Excited DC Generator have been studied by. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for CHAFON 330W Portable Power Station,296Wh CPAP Backup Lithium Battery Pack Generator,110V AC Outlet/12V Car Port/USB-C Power Delivery/Wireless Charger/QC 3. Shunt And Series DC Machines. were irradiated by a 10-kW fiber laser at 0. Using M523xEVB, 33395 Evaluation Motor Board, and DC Motor with Optical Sensors. Though the light-harvesting and charge-separation functions of these proteins have been studied in depth. The generator is running at 800 RPM. In a separately excited DC generator, the field winding is excited by an external independent source. It is shown diagrammatically in fig (1. Because of this property they are used as supply source of DC motors, whose speeds are to be controlled for various applications. Many other signals can be rep-resented by linear combinations of exponentials. Constructionally, there is no basic difference between DC generator and DC motor. A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. The disadvantage are: 1. The captured waveform was analyzed with the oscilloscope. It can also cause power quality problems. 3 Characteristic of Compound-wound motor. obtainable is AC. Principle Of Operation Of Synchronous Motor. In case of separately excited d. The armature resistance is Ra = 0. Small DC motors usually have maximum efficiency of 50-60%. In the surface. based on the interconnection between the field winding and the armature winding, the self excited generator are further classified as,. PMG supplies isolated power to the AVR when the generator shaft rotates. Club Car has employed a fairly standard serial number location and format since around 1981. the torque of this motor depends upon the field flux and we discover that from the torque equation of Dc motor Tg =Ka Q Ia. C) Laboratory Manual Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering. V T,OC = 540 V at the rated I F. Types of DC Motors. The theory is that a faulty flyback (which cannot be found by simple resistance measurements) will have shorted turns in one of the coils. GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS Learning Objectives Characteristics of D. These types of DC generators are generally more expensive than self-excited DC generators because of their requirement of separate excitation source. *Note: we don't guarantee any of the above numbers. Because of that their applications are restricted. The remaining article will explain how gain is achieved in a typical DC generator and how the modifications making the generator an amplidyne increase the gain to as high as 10,000. A self-excited generator is thus distinguished from a separately excited generator, in which the windings of the main poles receive current from an external source. 35 Series Machine: armature and field circuits are connected in series. Discover why more than 10 million students and educators use Course Hero. shows the external characteristic of a shunt excited dc generator. Following a positive feedback like action, the. Generator. Generator • Series wound D. Because of control simplicity and technological maturity, DC motors are widely accepted for applications requiring variable speed, frequent start/stop, reversing and braking. Can you post an image or two that you like from her, please? Once I’ve seen what kind of work she does, maybe I can help you with your journey. Comic book and comedy writer Gerry Duggan @gerryduggan joins us to talk saying goodbye to Deadpool, the time when Ron Jeremy was his landlord, and to listen to some listener submitted music. three basic classification DC generators (1) permanent-magnet field (2) separately-excited field and (3) self-excited field. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. DC machines are usually classified on the basis of their field excitation method. I L,SC = 300 A at the rated I F. Used to charge the battery. Here lets take a look the types of DC generators. the terminal voltage [V] b. Also, using the. UNIT II CONVERTER / CHOPPER FED DC MOTOR DRIVE Steady state analysis of the single and three phase converter fed separately excited DC motor drive– continuous conduction – Time ratio and current limit control – 4 quadrant operation of converter / chopper fed drive-Applications. the torque of this motor depends upon the field flux and we discover that from the torque equation of Dc motor Tg =Ka Q Ia. Between the 4 types of DC motors, the potential applications are numerous. For the wound-field DC machine, access is provided to the field terminals (F+, F−) so that the machine model can be used as a shunt-connected or a series-connected DC machine. ii) Self excited D. A 3-phase PM Synchronous motor was designed in accordance with the requirements and objectives of the thesis. Generators may be divided into (a) separately-excited generators and (b) self-excited DC generators. Exercise Details. Price Match Guarantee. 3 •Types of DC Generators 4 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Separately Excited DC Generator 5 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Self Excited Shunt DC Generator 6 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Self Excited Series DC Generator 7 •The Terminal Characteristic of Cumulatively Compound DC Generator 8 •E. Let’s start with some basic FOC principles. Discuss LSU Football, Recruiting, Basketball, and Baseball. 19 1 Torque and speed of rotation The torque generated by the motor, and its speed of rotation, are. If the motor has a shunt field, the field and armature voltages would be equal. The circuit diagram of a separately excited DC Generator on loaded condition is shown below. These are mainly 2 types 1) separately excited generators 2) self excited generators In separately excited generators field is excited from a separate voltage source. Start studying A2 Chapter 7 Electrical Theory and DC Machines. A DC machine is an electromechanical energy alteration device. There is an awesome variety of best-selling items, ranging from fonts to brushes, vectors, textures, effects packs, and much more. This approach is particularly common in electrical power distribution calculations. After my recent Winter 2014-2015 trainer recommendations post, many of you have been asking about trainer apps. But since the output voltage may be controlled more easily and over a wide range (from zero to a maximum),. Losses In DC Machines. 1 is observed to be 2950 r/min with the field current at the same value as in Example 7. All I get are notes turning on and off but no control from my breath? Why? When using a sound generator with a wind controller the results you get will depend largely on the programmability of the soundcard/softsynth/MIDI sound module. The separately excited field is provided with a separate DC source. A direct current (DC) generator, not using a permanent magnet, requires a DC field current field may be separately excited by a source of DC, or may be connected to the armature of the generator so that the generator also provides the energy required for the field current. If the magnetic poles are energized by external source then it is called separately excited machine. 3 Principle of operation Consider a coil in a magnetic field of flux density B (figure 4). Shunt dc generator with field rheostat. No residual magnetism The start of the build up process needs some residual magnetism in the magnetic circuit of the generator. • DC motors with field coils - Separately excited motorshave separate control of the armature and field currents. DC motor is still the most common choice if wide range of adjustable speed drive operation is specified. Separately excited DC machine. Types And Applications Of Compound DC Motors. Open circuit characteristic or Magnetization curve or No - load saturation Curve Open circuit characteristic is the relation between the No-load generated emf in the armature, and the field exciting current at a fixed speed. The characteristics of this generator are given as [3]: =I I L A (9) = − V E I R T A A A (10) F F F R V I = (11) Experimentally different load characteristics of a Separately Excited DC Generator have been studied by. Separately excited DC generator. Each DC machine can act as a generator or a motor. While substantial advances have been made for small molecules, the polymer community has. f? Continue Reading5 DC Generator Problems with Solution – Part 1. source for excitation. separately excited from an eternal DC source. ROOT LOCUS Control system Design. Check The Output For DC - If everything looks good so far, with the amp on, measure from pin 1 (the square pad) of P2 to the other terminals of P2 as shown in the diagram above. A antiwindup technique is used in controller to avoid integrator windup problem. Price Match Guarantee. Note: In the motor wiring diagrams, the DC motors do not have separately excited windings. The disadvantage are: 1. (i) Separately excited: In this type, field coils are energized from an independent external DC source. For that, we run the DC generator with its rated speed and also we excite the field with the rated field current. Let us now solve some problems on shunt, separately excited and series motors. It is braked by plugging from an initial speed of 1000rpm. Dc Motors, Generators and Energy Conversion Devices. Like any other motor, series motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Calculate the generated e. 42 Example 21. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that these effects on learning and performance are related to changes in attention. For these motors we have data from manufacturers (see Links). generator are (i) a magnetic field and (ii) a conductor or conductors which can so move as to cut the flux. The above DC bridge circuit can be excited with a DC voltage source by placing it in one diagonal. Permanent Magnet Generators This type is characterized by being smaller, lighter and more efficient compared to wound generators I a = I L E-+ R a I a R L I L φConstant Flux 2. Open Circuit Characteristic of a DC Generator The O. GENERATORS AND THEIR IMPORTANT RELATIONS - Duration: Types of DC Generator. Download High Quality Blogger Templates available in 1, 2 or 3 columns. In case of separately excited d. This forms a simple COMMUTATOR. Thus, the study shows a unique and. This causes a field current that increases the flux and in. A separately excited DC machine is used, in this case, with the control of the field terminals and the armature circuit connected to converters. Commutator motors include separately excited, shunt excited, series. Self Excited R f E-+ R a I a R L I L I f I a = I. There are generally three most important characteristic of DC generator: Magnetic or Open Circuit Characteristic of Separately Excited DC GeneratorThe curve which gives the relation between field current (If) and the generated voltage (E0)…. The concept of VAR compensation embraces a wide and diverse field of both system and customer problems, especially related with power quality issues, since most of power quality problems can be attenuated or solved with an adequate control of reactive power. Here lets take a look the types of DC generators. The image to the right shows a screenshot of a sample Exercise from the PsimBook environment. In a separately excited dc generator the field is connected to: a) In series with an armature b) Across the armature c) To the external supply source d) None of the above C 2. We started this business because we had a huge passion for delicious food. 33 Examples 1. The field coils of the stator were originally separately excited by a separate, smaller, dynamo or magneto. Isola begins two days after Queen Olwyn's transformation into a tiger, with her and Captain Rook already on the move. generators field regulator is necessary. 7 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) for two different orifice diameters and the case of no orifice plate at all. generator are (i) a magnetic field and (ii) a conductor or conductors which can so move as to cut the flux. It’s about improving people’s prospects. Chapter 5 & 6 (DC MOTOR & GENERATOR) Assignment questions Plus All Examples of both the Chapters 1. Welcome to my own course "Complete Electrical Machines For Electrical Power Engineering" This course is divided into 4 courses together as a bundle for you. Find low everyday prices and buy online for delivery or in-store pick-up. - Good speed control. So long the machine operates in unsaturated condition the. Louganski Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. If you've got lessons plans, videos, activities, or other ideas you'd like to contribute, we'd love to hear from you. They are the separately excited type and the self-excited type. They are generally used where the use of self-excited generators are unsatisfactory. DC machines are usually classified on the basis of their field excitation method. Alternatively, it may be noted that the output of the DC generator is unidirectional and therefore may be used as a source to supply its own field current, as shown in Figure 7B. State the differences among a shunt, series, and compound dc motor, and describe the performance characteristics and application examples of each. Induction motors are favored due to their ruggedness and simplicity. Its operation is based on simple electromagnetic principle by which when the magnetic field created around a current carrying conductor interacts with an external magnetic field, a rotational motion is generated. at Different Speeds ? Critical Speed Voltage Build up of a Shunt Generator. Multiple choice questions on dc generator #12 In a separately excited dc generator the field is connected A) in series with an armature B) across the armature. Experiment No: 3 Characteristics of DC Generators 1 Aim To obtain † Open circuit and External characteristics of separately excited (S. generator induced e. However, it does have the disadvantage that a separate direct current power source is needed to excite the shunt field. The construction of a DC motor is considerably more. A small permanent magnet or battery excited dynamo produces the field current for the bigger generators. The separately excited DC motors are most often used. 3 •Types of DC Generators 4 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Separately Excited DC Generator 5 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Self Excited Shunt DC Generator 6 •The Terminal Characteristic of a Self Excited Series DC Generator 7 •The Terminal Characteristic of Cumulatively Compound DC Generator 8 •E. A self-excited DC generator depends on residual magnetism--that is, a small amount of magnetism remains in the electromagnets. Many other DC generators use part of the direct current they produce to operate their own electromagnets. Used as a supply source of DC motors. When energy is converted from electrical to mechanical the device is a called motor. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. • DC Machine is most often used for a motor. generator is set as follows. DC series motors.